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Chicago Citation & Style Guide

Guidance for citing sources in Chicago style.

Formatting Basics

Chicago Style has a few formatting guidelines for the notes.

  • Use superscript format and start with the number 1.
  • Place the note number at the end of the clause or sentence that refers to the source and after all punctuation except for dashes (—).
  • The first time you cite a source, provide all information about it in the note: author’s full name, title of the source, and publication information.
  • The next time you cite that source, you only need to provide the author's last name, a shortened source title, and the page number where you found the information.
  • If you cite the same source and the same page consecutive times, use the word "Ibid" (a shorted form of the Latin ibidem, meaning “in the same place”).
  • If you cite the same source but a different page number, use the word "Ibid" and follow it with a comma and the different page number.

Here are the formatting guidelines for the reference list.

  • The reference list should start on a separate page at the end of your paper.
  • Use margins no less than 1” and no greater than 1.5”.
  • Title the page Bibliography, centered at the top (no bold, italics, quotation marks, etc.).
  • References should be in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented, like this:

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam at porttitor massa. In non cursus lectus. Fusce eget risus vitae tellus venenatis vestibulum a sed tellus.

  • Single-space each individual entry, but provide an extra line space between each entry.
  • Alphabetize the list by each source's first author’s last name. If there is no author, start with the first significant word in the title.
  • In titles of articles, books, and other sources, capitalize each word, except for articles (the, an), prepositions, or conjunctions, unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle.

URLs

URLs (uniform resource locators) provide the location for a source on the Internet. However, URLs can often change, which causes problems for references because we're trying to send our readers to a specific location.

DOIs

That location problem is where DOIs come in. DOI stands for digital object identifier. DOIs provide static, permanent online locations for sources. They're also noticeably shorter than most URLs, which is handy!

If you can't find the DOI on either the article or the database record page, you can look it up on CrossRef.org's Guest Query form. Scroll down to the bottom and type in the first author's last name and the title of the article.

Examples - Bibliography Entries

BOOKS, including eBOOKS & REFERENCE BOOKS

The basic format is:

Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (City of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year), page numbers.

Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, Shortened Title of Book, page numbers.

Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. City of Publication: Publisher,* Publication Year.

* Don't include the parts of publishers' names that are not required to locate the publisher. For example: The, Publishers, Co., Ltd., or Inc. However, keep the words Books, Sons, and Brothers. The word Press can be kept or omitted depending on the publisher's name. Keep Press in situations where the names could be confusing without it (Free Press) or when part of the name of a university press.

Specific Examples:

Multiple Authors
Footnote (First)
1. Connie J. A. Beck and Bruce D. Sales, Family Mediation: Facts, Myths, and Future Prospects (Washington: APA, 2001), 99-100.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Beck and Sales, Family Mediation, 105.
Bibliography Entry
Beck, Connie J. A., and Bruce D. Sales. Family Mediation: Facts, Myths, and Future Prospects. Washington: APA, 2001.
Edited Book
Footnote (First)
1. Jewelle Taylor Gibbs and Larke Nahme Huang, eds., Children of Color: Psychological Interventions With Minority Youth (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991), 87.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Gibbs and Huang, Children of Color, 79.
Bibliography Entry
Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor, and Larke Nahme Huang, eds. Children of Color: Psychological Interventions With Minority Youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Footnote (First)
1. Domino W. Massaro, "Broadening the Domain of the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception," in Cognition: Conceptual and Methodological Issues, ed. Herbert L. Pick, Jr. et al. (Washington: APA, 1992), 51-84.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Massaro, "Broadening the Domain," 51-84.
Bibliography Entry
Massaro, Dominic W. "Broadening the Domain of the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception." In Cognition: Conceptual and Methodological Issues, edited by Herbert L. Pick, Jr., Paulus Willem van den Broek, and David C. Knill, 51-84. Washington: APA, 1992.
Entry in an Encyclopedia
According to The Chicago Manual of Style, "Well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than in bibliographies. The facts of publication are often omitted, but the edition (if not the first) must be specified. References to an alphabetically arranged work cite the item (not the volume or page number) preceded by s.v. (sub verbo, "under the word"; pl. s.vv.)" (p. 755, section 14.247).
Footnote
1. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. "relativity."
Electronic Book, from a Database
Footnote (First)
1. Stephen F. Arno and Steven Allison-Bunnell, Flames in Our Forest: Disaster or Renewal? (Washington: Island Press, 2002), http://www.ebscohost.com/ebooks.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Arno and Allison-Bunnell, Flames in Our Forest.
Bibliography Entry
Arno, Stephen F., and Steven Allison-Bunnell. Flames in Our Forest: Disaster or Renewal? Washington: Island Press, 2002. http://www.ebscohost.com/ebooks.
Electronic Book, from an eReader
Footnote (First)
1. Glenn R. Schiraldi, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook: A Guide to Healing, Recovery, and Growth (New York: McGraw, 2001), Kindle edition.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Glenn R. Schiraldi, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Bibliography Entry
Schiraldi, Glenn R. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook: A Guide to Healing, Recovery, and Growth. New York: McGraw, 2001. Kindle edition.
Dissertation or Thesis, Retrieved from a Database
Footnote (First)
1. Leah Sigrun Laxdal, "A Narrative Blind Eye: Visual Disability Representation Within the Brothers Grimm Folk Tales" (PhD diss., University of Windsor, 2009), ProQuest (MR82087).
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Laxdal, "A Narrative Blind Eye."
Bibliography Entry
Laxdal, Leah Sigrun. "A Narrative Blind Eye: Visual Disability Representation Within the Brothers Grimm Folk Tales." PhD diss., University of Windsor, 2009. ProQuest (MR82087).
Dissertation or Thesis, Retrieved from the Web
Footnote (First)
1. Amy S. Bruckman, "MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids" (PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1997).
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Amy S. Bruckman, "MOOSE Crossing."
Bibliography Entry
Bruckman, Amy S. "MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids." PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1997.

ARTICLES (JOURNAL, MAGAZINE, & NEWSPAPER)

The basic format is:

Journal — Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume, no. Issue (Publication Date): page numbers.

Journal — Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, "Shortened Title of Article," page numbers.

Journal — Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal Volume, no. Issue (Publication Date): page numbers.

Magazine/Newspaper — Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, "Title of Article," Title of Magazine or Newspaper, Publication Date, page numbers.

Magazine/Newspaper — Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, "Shortened Title of Article," page numbers.

Magazine/Newspaper — Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Magazine or Newspaper, Publication Date.

Notes & Exceptions:

  • Include a DOI if it's provided for electronic articles. If no DOI is available, use the periodical's homepage URL instead.
  • If you provide the URL, state it as http://www.URL.com. You don't need to provide a access date unless required by your professor.
    [See the box to the right—"URL vs DOI"—for additional information about URLs and DOIs.]
  • Chicago Style states that you only have to provide an issue number if each issue's pagination starts at page 1. However, it also states "it is never wrong to include the issue number, and doing so can be a hedge against other errors" (p. 732, section 14.180). So, if in doubt, go ahead and include it. ^_^
    To find out if the pagination continues from issue to issue, check the page numbers. High page numbers indicate continuous pagination. If you're still not sure, go to the journal's homepage and look up the issues in that volume. Find the page numbers for the first article in each issue.
  • Journal articles usually only need the year. (But some may specify a season or month.)
  • Magazine, newspaper, and newsletter articles require the year and the exact date (month or month and day).

Specific Examples:

Journal Article, Continuous Pagination, with DOI
Footnote (First)
1. Alan Sangster and Giovanna Scataglinibelghitar, "Luca Pacioli: The Father of Accounting Education," Accounting Education 19 (2010): 427, doi:10.1080/09639284.2010.501955.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Sangster and Scataglinibelghitar, "Luca Pacioli," 429.
Bibliography Entry
Sangster, Alan, and Giovanna Scataglinibelghitar. "Luca Pacioli: The Father of Accounting Education." Accounting Education 19 (2010): 423-238. doi:10.1080/09639284.2010.501955.
Journal Article, Paginated by Issue, with DOI
Footnote (First)
1. Richard Klimoski and Susan Palmer, "The ADA and the Hiring Process in Organizations," Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 45, no. 2 (1993): 18, doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Klimoski and Palmer, "The ADA and the Hiring Process," 20.
Bibliography Entry
Klimoski, Richard, and Susan Palmer. "The ADA and the Hiring Process in Organizations." Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 45, no. 2 (1993): 10-36. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10.
Magazine Article, Online
Footnote (First)
1. Baruch Lev, "How to Win Investors Over," Harvard Business Review, November 1, 2011, http://hbr.org/2011/11/how-to-win-investors-over/ar/1.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Lev, "How to Win."
Bibliography Entry
Lev, Baruch. "How to Win Investors Over." Harvard Business Review, November 1, 2011. http://hbr.org/2011/11/how-to-win-investors-over/ar/1.
Newspaper Article, Online
Footnote (First)
1. Michael Rapaport, "Loan-Loss Rule Spat Drags On," The Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB20001424127887323628804578345831719096140.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Rapaport, "Loan-Loss Rule."
Bibliography Entry
Rapaport, Michael. "Loan-Loss Rule Spat Drags On." The Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB20001424127887323628804578345831719096140.

ONLINE SOURCES

The basic format is:

Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, "Title of Web Page," Name of Website or Publishing Organization, Publication Date and/or Access Date (if available), URL.

Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, "Shortened Title of Web Page."

Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. "Title of Web Page." Name of Website or Publishing Organization. Publication Date and/or Access Date (if available). URL.

Note: Chicago citation for online sources contains the following pieces.

  • author(s) name(s),
  • webpage title (in quotation marks) or
  • website title (if applicable),
  • publishing organization (if applicable),
  • publication/modification date or access date, and
  • URL.

Specific Examples:

Webpage
Note that a webpage is a small part of a larger website. Just as chapter and article titles aren't in italics, webpage titles aren't in italics, either.
Footnote (First)
1. "Concordia's History," Concordia University, accessed September 3, 2014, http://www.cu-portland.edu/about/history.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. "Concordia's History."
Bibliography Entry
"Concordia's History." Concordia University. Accessed September 3, 2014. http://www.cu-portland.edu/about/history.
Website

If you refer to a website in general, but not a specific part of that website, Chicago states that you can simply use an in-text citation with the website's name and URL. Here's an example:

The American Library Association's Great Websites for Kids (http://gws.ala.org/) recommends websites that are relevant for children up to 14 years of age.

If you need a more formal citation, use the example below.

Footnote (First)
1. Great Websites for Kids, American Library Association, accessed September 3, 2014, http://gws.ala.org/.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Great Websites for Kids.
Bibliography Entry
Great Websites for Kids. American Library Association. Accessed September 3, 2014. http://gws.ala.org/.

Note that a website is the larger source. Just as book and journal titles are in italics, website titles should be in italics, too.

Blog Post

If you refer to a blog post or comment in general, Chicago states that you can simply use an in-text citation with the blog's name and date. Here's an example:

In a post on the APA Style Blog on January 24, 2013, Stefanie discussed the importance of being able to retrieve sources for APA style.

If you need a more formal citation, use the example below.

Footnote (First)
1. Stefanie, "Asking the Right Question: How Can the Reader Find the Source?" APA Style Blog (blog), January 24, 2013, http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/01/asking-the-right-question-how-can-the-reader-find-the-source.html.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Stefanie, "Asking the Right Question."
Bibliography Entry
Stefanie. "Asking the Right Question: How Can the Reader Find the Source?" APA Style Blog (blog). January 24, 2013. http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/01/asking-the-right-question-how-can-the-reader-find-the-source.html.
Discussion Board Post
Footnote (First)
1. Zahid Mehmood, "VPN Service -- Quick Poll," EDUCAUSE.edu, March 9, 2012, http://www.educause.edu/discuss/discussion-groups-related-educause-programs/security-discussion-group/vpn-service-quick-poll.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Mehmood, "VPN Service."
Bibliography Entry
Mehmood, Zahid. "VPN Service -- Quick Poll." EDUCAUSE.edu. March 9, 2012. http://www.educause.edu/discuss/discussion-groups-related-educause-programs/security-discussion-group/vpn-service-quick-poll.
Tweet
Footnote (First)
1. Concordia University, Twitter post, August 26, 2014, 8:47 a.m., https://twitter.com/cu_portland.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Concordia University, Twitter post.
Bibliography Entry
Concordia University. Twitter post. August 26, 2014, 8:47 a.m. https://twitter.com/cu_portland.
Facebook Post
Footnote (First)
1. Concordia University Portland, Facebook post, August 20, 2014, 5:09 p.m., https://www.facebook.com/cu.portland.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Concordia University Portland, Facebook post.
Bibliography Entry
Concordia University Portland. Facebook post. August 20, 2014, 5:09 p.m. https://www.facebook.com/cu.portland.

MEDIA (AUDIO/VISUAL) MATERIALS

The basic format is:

Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, Title of Work, Format, directed/performed by First_name Last_name (Original Release Year; Publication City: Studio/Distributor, Video Release Year), Medium.

Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, Shortened Title of Work.

Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by First_name Last_name. Original Release Year. Publication City: Studio/Distributor, Video Release Year. Medium.

Specific Examples:

Motion Picture, as Viewed in a Theater
Footnote (First)
1. Despicable Me, directed by Pierre Coffin and Chris Renaud (2010; Universal City, CA: Universal Studios), Film.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Despicable Me.
Bibliography Entry
Despicable Me. Directed by Pierre Coffin and Chris Renaud. 2010. Universal City, CA: Universal Studios. Film.
Video, DVD
Footnote (First)
1. Labyrinth: Collector's Edition, directed by Jim Henson (1986; Culver City, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, 2004), DVD.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Labyrinth: Collector's Edition.
Bibliography Entry
Labyrinth: Collector's Edition. Directed by Jim Henson. 1986. Culver City, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.
YouTube or Social Media Video
Footnote (First)
1. Concordia Portland, "Concordia's 3 to PhD Initiative," YouTube video, 4:13, posted by "Concordia Portland," February 6, 2014, http://youtu.be/hTOpTQWTSmI?.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Concordia Portland, "Concordia's 3 to PhD Initiative."
Bibliography Entry
Concordia Portland. "Concordia's 3 to PhD Initiative." YouTube video, 4:13. Posted by "Concordia Portland," February 6, 2014. http://youtu.be/hTOpTQWTSmI?.
Audio Podcast
Footnote (First)
1. Deborah Stanish, Erika Ensign, Lynne M. Thomas, and Tansy R. Roberts, Verity! Episode 46 - Communication Breakdown, Verity! Podcast, MP3, 1:12:31, accessed September 3, 2014, http://veritypodcast.wordpress.com/2014/07/16/episode-46-communication-breakdown/.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Stanish, Ensign, Thomas, and Roberts, Communication Breakdown.
Bibliography Entry
Stanish, Deborah, Erika Ensign, Lynne M. Thomas, and Tansy R. Roberts. Verity! Episode 46 - Communication Breakdown. Verity! Podcast. MP3, 1:12:31. Accessed September 3, 2014. http://veritypodcast.wordpress.com/2014/07/16/episode-46-communication-breakdown/.
Artwork, Original
Footnote (First)
1. Camille Pissarro, Place du Carrousel, Paris, oil on canvas, 1900, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Camille Pissarro, Place du Carrousel, Paris.
Bibliography Entry
Pissarro, Camille. Place du Carrousel, Paris. Oil on canvas, 1900. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
Artwork/Image, Digital
Footnote (First)
1. Andrew Wyeth, Roaring Reef, [c. 1951], Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC., http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=33040.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Andrew Wyeth, Roaring Reef.
Bibliography Entry
Wyeth, Andrew. Roaring Reef. [c. 1951]. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC. http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=33040.
Music Recording
Footnote (First)
1. Sara Bareilles, "Brave," The Blessed Unrest, Epic Records, 2013, compact disc.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Sara Bareilles, "Brave."
Bibliography Entry
Bareilles, Sara. "Brave." The Blessed Unrest. Epic Records, 2013. compact disc.

TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH REPORTS

The basic format is:

Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, Title of Report: Subtitle of Report (City of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year), page numbers.

Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, Shortened Title of Report, page numbers.

Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. Title of Report: Subtitle of Report. City of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year.

Additional Notes:

  • Format references for reports similarly to how you format references for books.
  • If the report has a number (report number, contract number, etc.), include it the title and before the publisher information. If the report doesn't have a number, leave that notation out of the reference.
  • If you access a report online, provide a URL after the publisher information.

Specific Examples:

Corporate Author, Government Report, Retrieved Online, No Report Number
Footnote (First)
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance (Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010), http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/health_and_academics/pdf/pa-pe_paper.pdf.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, School-Based Physical Activity.
Bibliography Entry
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/health_and_academics/pdf/pa-pe_paper.pdf.
Corporate Author, Government Report, Print, Report Number
Footnote (First)
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research, Palliative Care: The Relief You Need When You're Experiencing the Symptoms of Serious Illness, NIH Publication No. 11-6415 (Bethesda: NIH, 2011).
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. National Institute of Nursing Research, Palliative Care.
Bibliography Entry
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Nursing Research. Palliative Care: The Relief You Need When You're Experiencing the Symptoms of Serious Illness. NIH Publication No. 11-6415. Bethesda: NIH, 2011.
Authored Report from Institutional Archive, Retrieved Online
Footnote (First)
1. Scott G. Paris, Alison H. Paris, and Robert D. Carpenter, Effective Practices for Assessing Young Readers, CIERA Report 3-013 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2001). http://www.ciera.org/library /reports/inquiry-3/3-013/3-013.pdf.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Paris, Paris, and Carpenter, Effective Practices.
Bibliography Entry
Paris, Scott G., Alison H. Paris, and Robert D. Carpenter. Effective Practices for Assessing Young Readers. CIERA Report 3-013. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2001. http://www.ciera.org/library /reports/inquiry-3/3-013/3-013.pdf.

COURSE MATERIALS

The basic format is:

not applicablenot applicable Chicago style focuses on writing and style conventions for professional publications, not academic papers. However, we can use Chicago's general rules to interpret how to cite course materials. It all comes down to the elements of the source.

Additional Notes:

  • It's important to keep in mind that the reference list is designed to provide information describing the source.
  • In some cases, there won't be a source to cite. This often happens with materials that can't be shared, such as course notes, materials shown during lectures, or emails. When this happens, provide a quote or paraphrase in the text with as much identifying information as possible in the note. (Don't put anything in the Bibliography.) Here's an example:

    We knew beforehand that we should always bring our textbooks with us to class.42

    42. Joe Schmoe, e-mail message to class, September 3, 2014.

     

Specific Examples:

Lectures (Live)
Footnote (First)
1. Joe Schmoe, "Learning Styles of College Students," College Preparation 101, Portland, August 28, 2014.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Schmoe, "Learning Styles."
Bibliography Entry
Schmoe, Joe. "Learning Styles of College Students." College Preparation 101, Portland, August 28, 2014.
Course Packs

Previously Published

If the material in the course pack was previously published (a chapter from a book, an article from a journal), cite the source as you would its original version. (See the tabs for books and articles.)

Original or Unattributed

If the material in the course pack was not previously published, cite the source as a compilation. Here's an example:

Footnote (First)
1. Joe Schmoe, "Ten Steps to Succeed in College," Selected Readings in College Preparation, compiled by Alice B. Carroll (Portland: Concordia University, 2014), 5-8.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Schmoe, "Ten Steps to Succeed," 7.
Bibliography Entry
Schmoe, Joe. "Ten Steps to Succeed in College." Selected Readings in College Preparation. Compiled by Alice B. Carroll. Portland: Concordia University, 2014.
Class Notes

Class notes can't be retrieved by most readers. (You may share your notes with a friend or group in the class, but for the most part, no one else will see them.) Because class notes can't be retrieved, they should be cited in the footnote. (See the example above.)

PowerPoint or Other Files

Viewed Live

PowerPoint files or other materials shared live in a class are just like live lectures—they can't be retrieved by anyone after the fact. Because of that, they should be cited in the text. (See the example above.)

Posted Online

If your professor posts PowerPoint or other files online (on a website, etc.), cite them as you would any other online source: provide the author, title, date, and URL.

Footnote (First)
1. Joe Schmoe, "Study Strategies Before an Exam," College Preparation 101, accessed August 28, 2014, http://www.somesite.edu.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Schmoe, "Study Strategies."
Bibliography Entry
Schmoe, Joe. "Study Strategies Before an Exam." College Preparation 101. Accessed August 28, 2014. http://www.somesite.edu.
Documents Uploaded to Blackboard

Previously Published

If the material uploaded to Blackboard was previously published (a chapter from a book, an article from a journal), cite the source as you would its original version. (See the tabs for books and articles.) Do not provide the URL to Blackboard.

Original or Unattributed

If the material uploaded to Blackboard is original (lecture notes) or unattributed (doesn't give full source information), then cite as much as you can that falls into the who, what, when, where format: author, title, source, date, and URL.

  • In this case, it's usually okay to provide the URL to the source's location in Blackboard. This is especially true if the paper/project is only for class.
  • However, if people outside your class will be reading your paper/project, such a URL won't work, and you'll need to cite the source as a personal communication (see above).
Footnote (First)
1. Joe Schmoe, "Syllabus," College Preparation 101, Blackboard, August 28, 2014, http://cup.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-000-dt-content-rid-0000_0/courses/Course_Name/Syllabus.htm.
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Schmoe, "Syllabus."
Bibliography Entry
Schmoe, Joe. "Syllabus." College Preparation 101, Blackboard. August 28, 2014. http://cup.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-000-dt-content-rid-0000_0/courses/Course_Name/Syllabus.htm.

CONFERENCE, MEETING, & SYMPOSIUM MATERIALS

The basic format is:

Presentation — Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, "Title of Presentation" (presentation, Organization, Location, Date).

Presentation — Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, "Shortened Title of Presentation."

Presentation — Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. "Title of Presentation." Presentation at Organization, Location, Date.

Paper Presentation — Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, "Title of Paper" (paper presented at the annual meeting for Organization, Location, Date).

Paper Presentation — Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, "Shortened Title of Paper."

Paper Presentation — Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. "Title of Paper." Paper presented at the annual meeting for Organization, Location, Date.

Published Proceedings — Footnote (First Note)

1. First_name Last_name, "Title of Article," In Title of Proceedings, edited by First_name Last_name, Pages. Location of Conference, Dates of Conference (Location: Organization/Publisher, Year).

Published Proceedings — Footnote (Succeeding Notes)

2. Last_name, "Shortened Title of Article."

Published Proceedings — Bibliography Entry

Last_name, First_name. "Title of Article." In Title of Proceedings, edited by First_name Last_name, Pages. Location of Conference, Dates of Conference. Location: Organization/Publisher, Year.

Additional Notes:

  • Unpublished presentation sessions should follow the first example above.
  • Unpublished paper or poster sessions should follow the second example above.
  • Published papers or conference proceedings should follow the third example above.

Specific Examples:

Conference/Symposium Presentation
Footnote (First)
1. Shawn Daley, "Flipping with iPads: The Centerpiece of a New Pedagogy?" (presentation, Teaching, Learning and Technology Conference, Oregon Academic Technology Society, Portland, OR, October 26, 2012).
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Daley, "Flipping with iPads."
Bibliography Entry
Daley, Shawn. "Flipping with iPads: The Centerpiece of a New Pedagogy?" Presentation at the Teaching, Learning and Technology Conference, Oregon Academic Technology Society, Portland, OR, October 26, 2012.
Conference Poster Session
Footnote (First)
1. Bob Harbort, "Using Formative Assessment to Improve Depth and Precision of Student Understanding in Technical Coursework" (poster presented at the Fourth Annual Polytechnic Summit, Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, GA, June 2012).
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Harbort, "Using Formative Assessment."
Bibliography Entry
Harbort, Bob. "Using Formative Assessment to Improve Depth and Precision of Student Understanding in Technical Coursework." Poster presented at the Fourth Annual Polytechnic Summit, Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, GA, June 2012.
Conference Proceeding Article
Footnote (First)
1. Thomas B. Hilburn, Alice Squires, and Raymond Madachy, "A Model for Educating Systems Engineers," in 2012 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon 2012), Vancouver, March 19-22, 2012 (Piscataway: IEEE, 2012).
Footnote (Succeeding)
2. Hilburn, Squires, and Madachy, "Educating Systems Engineers."
Bibliography Entry
Hilburn, Thomas B., Alice Squires, and Raymond Madachy. "A Model for Educating Systems Engineers." In 2012 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon 2012), Vancouver, March 19-22, 2012. Piscataway: IEEE, 2012.

INTERVIEWS

The basic format is:

Chicago style for interviews includes: the person being interviewed (or the person sending the communication), the interviewer (if known), information about the place and date of the interview/communication (if known).

Specific Examples:

Unpublished Interview
  • Cite an unpublished interview in the footnotes only.
Footnote (Example 1)
1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2009.
Footnote (Example 2)
2. Harvey Kail, interview by Laurie A. Pinkert, March 15, 2009, interview 45B, transcript.
Published Interview
  • Published interviews should be formatted like periodical articles or book chapters.
Footnote
1. Carrie Rodriguez, interview by Cuz Frost, Acoustic Café, 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.
Bibliography Entry
Rodriguez, Carrie. Acoustic Café. By Cuz Frost. 88.3WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.
Personal Communication
  • Cite a personal communication in the footnotes only.
Footnote
1. Patricia Burns, e-mail message to author, December 15, 2008.

References to the Bible and other religious texts are usually referred to in just the footnotes rather than in the footnotes and the bibliography.

References to religious texts should include the book (usually abbreviated), chapter, and verse, but not the page number. (This is because pagination is often different for different versions.) For proper abbreviations for the books see Chicago Manual of Style sec. 10.45-10.51.

In the text of your paper, you should spell out the name of the book of the Bible. However, in the footnotes, you can abbreviate the name of the book. (See sec. 10.46-10.47.)

Formatting the title. In the text of your paper, the names of religious works are capitalized but not put in italics. (See Chicago Manual of Style sec. 8.102 for additional information and examples.)

the Bible
the Hebrew Bible
Koran
Talmud

Formatting the reference. Biblical references are given in numeral; chapter and verse are separated by a colon (Chicago Manual of Style sec. 14.253). For the Koran, provide surah and verse.

1. 1 Thess. 4:11, 5:2-5, 5:14.
2. Heb. 13:8, 13:12.
3. Gen. 25:19-36:43.
4. Koran 19:17-21.

Versions of the Bible. Books and numbering are not identical in different versions; it is essential to identify which version is being cited. For general readers, the version should be spelled out, at least for the first occurrence, for specialists, the abbreviation may be used.

5. 2 Kings 11:8 (New Revised Standard Version).
6. 1 Cor. 6:1-10 (NRSV).

While the Chicago Manual of Style states that you usually don't need to provide a bibliography entry for religious texts, you may find that some professors require it. In those cases, format religious texts the same way you would a book.

Last_name, First_name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. City of Publication: Publisher,* Publication Year.

* Don't include the parts of publishers' names that are not required to locate the publisher. For example: The, Publishers, Co., Ltd., or Inc. However, keep the words Books, Sons, and Brothers. The word Press can be kept or omitted depending on the publisher's name. Keep Press in situations where the names could be confusing without it (Free Press) or when part of the name of a university press.

For more information, see the handout below.

LEGAL MATERIALS

The basic formats are:

These are basic examples for citing legal materials; for more information, see the latest edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (19th ed., 2010), which is the source for Chicago legal citation style.

Common Abbreviations

Cong.
H.
S.
Reg.
Res.
F.
F.2d

U.S. Congress
House of Representatives
Senate
Regulation
Resolution
Federal Reporter
Federal Reporter, Second Series

F.3d
F. Supp.
U.S.C.
Cong. Rec.
Fed. Reg.
U.S.
S. Ct.

Federal Reporter, Third Series
Federal Supplement
United States Code
Congressional Record
Federal Register
United States Supreme Court Reports
Supreme Court Reporter

Additional Notes:

  • Note that legal sources are cited in the footnotes only—no bibliography entries. (See Section 14.283)

Specific Examples:

Case and Court Decisions
Court Decisions
U.S. Supreme Court Decisions
Lower Federal-Court Decisions
State- and Local-Court Decisions
Constitutions
Constitutions
Legislative & Executive Documents
Laws and Statutes
Bills and Resolutions
Hearings
Congressional Reports and Documents
Congressional Debates Since 1873
Congressional Debates Before 1873
State Laws and Municipal Ordinances
Presidential Documents
Treaties
Unpublished Government Documents
Patents
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