APA style requires that you cite the author and publication year of a reference in the text of your paper. One or both of these elements may be in parentheses. Direct quotations also require the page number. If both author and year are in the text, no additional information is needed. The full information for the source will follow in the reference list at the end of the paper. Here are some examples. More detailed examples are in the handout to the right.
|Paraphrase||There was no relationship (Nkumbe, 2016).|
|Paraphrase, author in text||Nkumbe (2016) found that....|
|Quote||She stated, "...." (Lopez, 2015, p. 15).|
|Quote, author in text||Lopez (2015) states that, "....." (p. 15).|
|Quote from a website (use paragraph numbers)||She stated, "...." (Lopez, 2014, para. 5).|
|Two authors||Nothing was proven (Nkumbe & Lopez, 2016).|
|Two authors, authors in text||Nkumbe and Lopez (2016) found that....|
|Quote that spans more than one page||She stated, "....." (Lopez, 2015, pp. 15-16).|
When you need to cite information that is cited in a book or article you read, it's best to try to track down the original source and create a regular reference and in-text citation for that information. However, if you don't find the original source, you can create an in-text citation that includes both the original source and the book or article you read. This book or article is then called a secondary source. Here's an example:
In this example, a student read the Patterson and Linden source (secondary source), which cited the Smith 1979 source (original source). Since sources are only listed in the references list when they have both been read and cited in a paper, only Patterson and Linden is included in the references list.