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Marketing & Advertising: APA

This guide provides key library resources in the areas of marketing and advertising.

Helpful Websites: Guides & Tutorials

Helpful Websites: Samples

APA Manual

In-Text Citations - Definition

In-text citations appear in the text of your work. They act as guides to lead your readers to the reference list that you'll provide at the end.

In-Text Citations - Formatting & Examples

There are two ways you'll use other people's words in your work.

  • Quotations: using the author's exact words
  • Paraphrases: using the author's ideas in your own words

Here are the rules for providing in-text citations in both of these situations.

Quotations.

Rule: Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. Put the page number (preceded by "p.") in parentheses at the end of the quotation.

Example: As Davis (1978) reported, "If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists" (p. 26).

Rule: When the author's name does not appear in the signal phrase, place the author's name, the date, and the page number in parentheses at the end of the quotation. Use commas between items in the parentheses.

Example: "If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was also startling news for animal behaviorists" (Davis, 1978, p. 26).

Rule: When the quotation is more than 40 words in text, do not use quotation marks, but indent the quote into its own block of text.

Example: Students having a hard time finding databases isn't a new phenomenon. At the University of Washington, they have problems too.

With the addition of so many new databases to the campus online system, many students were having difficulty locating the database they needed. At the same time, the role of Session Manager had evolved. The increased importance of the Session Manager as a selection tool made it a part of the navigation process itself. (Eliasen, 1997, p. 510)

Paraphrases.

Rule: Work by one author, no quotation marks required.

Example 1: According to Davis (1978), when they learned of an ape's ability to use sign language, both linguists and animal behaviorists were taken by surprise.

Example 2: When they learned of an ape's ability to use sign language, both linguists and animal behaviorists were taken by surprise (Davis, 1978).

Reference List - Definition

The reference list appears at the end of your work; it's the list of sources to which you referred. Be sure that all of the sources match. (In other words, don't include sources in your reference list that you didn't quote or paraphase; that's called "bib padding.")

Reference List - Formatting

APA has a few formatting guidelines for the reference list.

  • References should be in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented, like this:

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus non blandit magna.

  • Double-space the entire list.
  • Title the page References, centered at the top (no bold, italics, quotation marks, etc.).
  • Alphabetize the list by each source's first author’s last name. If there is no author, start with the first significant word in the title.
  • In titles, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, and proper nouns.

Reference List - Examples

Here are examples of some common sources you may use.

Books (Basic Format)

Author, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of work: Subtitle of work. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Journal Articles (Basic Format)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publication Year). Article title: Article subtitle. Periodical Title, volume, pp-pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Magazine Articles (Basic Format)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publication Year, Month, Day). Article title: Article subtitle. Periodical Title, volume, pp-pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Web Documents (Basic Format)

Author, A. A. (Publication Year). Title of work: Subtitle of work. Retrieved from http://www.URL.com

See the links in the "Helpful Websites: Samples" box to see more examples of different types of sources.

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